NIST Develops ‘Dimmer Switch’ for Superconducting Quantum Computing Hybrid DQD/superconducting resonator device. Credit: (c) Nature, doi:10.1038/nature11559 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Most scientists agree that in order to carry out the kind of logic operations needed for scaled up quantum computing, a means of moving information from more than just a single qubit must be found. To date, such transfers have been made to happen between neighboring electrons on the order of nanometers – quantum computers of the future will require transfers on the millimeter scale. To achieve such a scale, the team at Princeton suggest the concept of a “quantum bus” as a means of providing a pathway for communications between more than one spin based qubit.To use a qubit in logic operations its spin rate is observed to be in either an up “1” or down position “0” state. In order for such information to be useful, a means must be used to control the spin state. In this new research the team used microwave signals. By creating a microwave field around the qubit, the researchers were able to change and read its spin state and by extending the concept to create a superconducting circuit that included more than one qubit, they were able to create a quantum bus that allows for the transfer of information between more than one qubit.Coupling distant qubits has been done before using superconducting qubits – the results have lasted for too short of a time however to be usable in a quantum machine. In this new research, the coherence time, as it’s known, has been greatly increased using the quantum bus they created – long enough to allow for large scale quantum computing. The hope is that the idea can be expanded to include the coupling of many more qubits all separated by the large distances involved in constructing an actual quantum computing device. (Phys.org)—Researchers at Princeton University have demonstrated that coupling spin qubits may be feasible over long distances by measuring the microwave field inside of a superconducting circuit to determine the spin rate of a single electron quantum bit (qubit). Their work, as they explain in their paper published in the journal Nature, may be a first step towards creating a true quantum computer. Journal information: Nature More information: Circuit quantum electrodynamics with a spin qubit, Nature 490, 380–383 (18 October 2012) doi:10.1038/nature11559AbstractElectron spins trapped in quantum dots have been proposed as basic building blocks of a future quantum processor. Although fast, 180-picosecond, two-quantum-bit (two-qubit) operations can be realized using nearest-neighbour exchange coupling4, a scalable, spin-based quantum computing architecture will almost certainly require long-range qubit interactions. Circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) allows spatially separated superconducting qubits to interact via a superconducting microwave cavity that acts as a ‘quantum bus’, making possible two-qubit entanglement and the implementation of simple quantum algorithms. Here we combine the cQED architecture with spin qubits by coupling an indium arsenide nanowire double quantum dot to a superconducting cavity. The architecture allows us to achieve a charge–cavity coupling rate of about 30 megahertz, consistent with coupling rates obtained in gallium arsenide quantum dots10. Furthermore, the strong spin–orbit interaction of indium arsenide allows us to drive spin rotations electrically with a local gate electrode, and the charge–cavity interaction provides a measurement of the resulting spin dynamics. Our results demonstrate how the cQED architecture can be used as a sensitive probe of single-spin physics and that a spin–cavity coupling rate of about one megahertz is feasible, presenting the possibility of long-range spin coupling via superconducting microwave cavities.Press release © 2012 Phys.org Citation: Researchers determine spin rate of qubit by measuring microwave field inside superconducting circuit (2012, October 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-10-qubit-microwave-field-superconducting-circuit.html
Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Hewlett-Packard offers fix for printers susceptible to remote hacks Nonetheless, it added, any customers concerned about the vulnerability can disable SNMPv1.2 or use the secure SNMPv3 mode until the firmware updates are made.Samsung’s SNMP advice, however, appeared to generate more questions than answers, motivating at least one news service, CNET, to contact Samsung in order to clarify the issue.That is because the U.S. Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) Vulnerability Note (VU#281284), issued first on November 26 and then revised on Wednesday said that a hardcoded Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) full read-write community string remains active even when SNMP is disabled in the printer management utility. The account in the firmware will still allow access to the device even if management functions are disabled in the printer’s software utility.The CERT warning spoke about a Samsung printer firmware backdoor administrator account. This is a hardcoded account in the printers that could allow a remote attacker to take control of an affected device. The note pertained to Samsung printers as well as some Dell printers manufactured by Samsung. “A remote, unauthenticated attacker could access an affected device with administrative privileges,” US-CERT said. “Secondary impacts include: the ability to make changes to the device configuration, access to sensitive information (e.g., device and network information, credentials, and information passed to the printer), and the ability to leverage further attacks through arbitrary code execution.”CERT then referenced that the “reporter has stated that blocking the custom SNMP trap port of 1118/udp will help mitigate the risks.”Samsung and Dell have stated that any models released after October 31 if this year are not affected by this vulnerability. The CERT note was a result of findings by Neil Smith, a security researcher, who then contacted US-CERT on November 26, telling them that Samsung printer firmware contains a hardcoded backdoor administrator account that could allow remote network access exploitation and device control. Citation: Samsung to issue updates in response to printer alert (2012, November 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-11-samsung-issue-response-printer.html More information: www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/281284 (Phys.org)—Samsung has issued a response to CERT’s vulnerability advisory about Samsung networked printers but the response may have left printer owners wondering what to do next. Samsung said that it is aware of and has resolved the security issue affecting Samsung network printers and multifunction devices. “The issue affects devices only when SNMP is enabled, and is resolved by disabling SNMP.” The company offered the reminder that it takes all matters of security seriously. They said that were they not aware of any customers affected by this vulnerability. Samsung said that it intends to release updated firmware for all current models by November 30, and all other models will receive an update by the end of the year. © 2012 Phys.org
Could Curiosity determine if Viking found life on Mars? (Phys.org)—In 1976, two Viking landers became the first US spacecraft from Earth to touch down on Mars. They took the first high-resolution images of the planet, surveyed the planet’s geographical features, and analyzed the geological composition of the atmosphere and surface. Perhaps most intriguingly, they also performed experiments that searched for signs of microbial life in Martian soil. The Viking 1 Lander’s LR results show that, when injected with the nutrient solution, the soil sample exhibited strong radioactivity, indicating metabolism. The control soil sample, which had been heated to kill any microorganisms, had a negative response. Credit: Levin and Straat, 1977, Biosystems. ©Elsevier Citation: Did 40-year-old Viking experiment discover life on Mars? (2016, October 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-10-year-old-viking-life-mars.html Today researchers know much more about Mars than they did 40 years ago. One of the biggest discoveries came in 2014, when the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover detected the presence of organic molecules on Mars for the first time. Over the past two years, Curiosity’s onboard Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) laboratory has detected methane, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and other organic molecules. Researchers suspect that these organic substances may have formed on Mars or been carried there by meteorites. The discovery of organic matter on Mars raises the question of why the Viking experiment did not detect organic matter back in 1976. As Levin explains, there are multiple reasons that might explain why the Viking results were negative.”We long ago pointed out the problems with the Viking GCMS (gas chromatograph—mass spectrometer),” Levin said. “Even its experimenter, Dr. Klaus Biemann, often stressed that the GCMS was not a life-detection experiment. It required at least one million microbial cells to detect any organic matter. In addition, the instrument had frequently failed when tested on Earth. Later, it was claimed that perchlorate in the soil destroyed the organic matter. However, I view this cautiously as there is no evidence for perchlorate at the Viking sites.”In light of the recent findings, Levin and Straat believe that it’s important to reconsider the LR results as having a biological origin. Other researchers who support this view have proposed that Martian life could take the form of methanogens (microorganisms that produce methane as a byproduct), halophiles (which can tolerate high salt concentrations as well as severe radiation and low oxygen concentrations), or some type of “cryptobiotic” microorganism that lies dormant until reactivated, such as by a nutrient solution like the one in the LR experiment. Publishing challengesPublishing a paper about life on Mars was very different than publishing more typical studies (over the years, Levin’s research has included low-calorie sweeteners, pharmaceutical drugs, safer pesticides, and wastewater treatment processes, among others). It took nearly 20 years for Levin and Straat to publish a peer-reviewed paper on their interpretation of the Viking LR results.”Since I first concluded that the LR had detected life (in 1997), major juried journals had refused our publications,” Levin told Phys.org. “I and my co-Experimenter, Dr. Patricia Ann Straat, then published mainly in the astrobiology section of the SPIE Proceedings, after presenting the papers at the annual SPIE conventions. Though these were invited papers, they were largely ignored by the bulk of astrobiologists in their publications.” These papers are available at gillevin.com. “At a meeting of the Canadian Space Agency, I met Dr. Sherry Cady, the editor of Astrobiology. She invited me to submit a paper for peer review. I did and it was promptly bounced, not even sent out for review because of its life claim.”Pat and I decided we would produce a paper that would withstand the utmost scientific scrutiny. It took years of countless renditions and compliance with or explanation away of a myriad of reviewers’ comments, but we persisted until we disposed of every adverse comment. Thus, we think this publication is quite significant in that it was scrubbed so thoroughly that the points remaining are firmly established.”You may not agree with the conclusion, but you cannot disparage the steps leading there. You can say only that the steps are insufficient. But, to us, that seems a tenuous defense, since no one would refute these results had they been obtained on Earth.” Future outlookFor Levin and Straat, one of the most important reasons for considering the existence of life on Mars is a practical one that may affect future research.”It seems prudent that the scientific community maintain biology as a viable explanation of the LR experimental results,” they write in their paper. “It seems inevitable that astronauts will eventually explore Mars. In the interest of their health and safety, biology should be held in the forefront of possible explanations for the LR results.”Going forward, Levin and Straat propose that carefully designed experiments can help to answer the question of the existence of life on Mars. In particular, LR-type experiments that test for chiral preference could tell whether the metabolizing substance is biological or chemical, since only biological agents can distinguish between left and right isomers. The scientists also emphasize the importance of the continued search for organic molecules, especially those with biological significance such as amino acids, simple carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and DNA. Future experiments may also provide the possibility of examining Martian soil under a microscope. Despite the positive outlook, Levin and Straat note that all future experiments will have an unavoidable drawback: the potential for contamination by previous landers. In this regard, the Viking landers were unique in that they were the only pristine Martian life-detection experiment that we will ever have. Journal information: Astrobiology Explore further Overall, these life-detection experiments produced surprising and contradictory results. One experiment, the Labeled Release (LR) experiment, showed that the Martian soil tested positive for metabolism—a sign that, on Earth, would almost certainly suggest the presence of life. However, a related experiment found no trace of organic material, suggesting the absence of life. With no organic substances, what could be, or seem to be, metabolizing?In the forty years since these experiments, scientists have been unable to reconcile the conflicting results, and the general consensus is that the Viking landers found no conclusive evidence of life on Mars. However, a small minority of scientists argues that the Viking results were positive for life on Mars.One prominent proponent of this view is Gilbert Levin, Experimenter of the Viking LR experiment. At first, Levin thought that the LR results were unclear, and stated merely that the results were consistent with biology. However, in 1997, after many years of further experiments on Earth, along with new discoveries on Mars (which NASA has now declared “habitable”), and the discovery of microorganisms living under conditions on Earth as severe as those on Mars, he and his Viking Co-Experimenter, Dr. Patricia A. Straat, have argued that the Mars results are best explained by living organisms.Recently, Levin and Straat published a perspective piece in the journal Astrobiology in which they reconsider the results of the Viking LR experiment in light of recent findings on Mars and recent proposals for inorganic substances that may mimic the observed metabolism-like processes. They argue that none of the proposed abiotic substances sufficiently explains the Viking results, and that Martian microbes should still be considered as the best explanation of the results. How the Labeled Release experiment workedIn the LR experiment, both the Viking 1 and Viking 2 landers collected samples of Martian soil, injected them with a drop of dilute nutrient solution, and then monitored the air above the soil for signs of metabolic byproducts. Since the nutrients were tagged with radioactive carbon-14, if microorganisms in the soil metabolized the nutrients, they would be expected to produce radioactive byproducts, such as radioactive carbon dioxide or methane. More information: Gilbert V. Levin and Patricia Ann Straat. “The Case for Extant Life on Mars and Its Possible Detection by the Viking Labeled Release Experiment.” Astrobiology. October 2016, 16(10): 798-810. DOI: 10.1089/ast.2015.1464 The Viking 2 Lander site, showing frost on the ground. This image was taken by Viking 2 in 1979. Credit: NASA; Viking 2 Lander image P-21873 Before launching the Viking spacecraft, the researchers tested the experimental protocol on a wide variety of terrestrial soils from harsh environments, from Death Valley to Antarctica. In each case, the experiments tested positive for life. Then as a control, the researchers heated the samples to 160 °C to kill all lifeforms, and then retested. In each case, the experiments now tested negative. To further confirm that the experimental procedure would not produce false positives, the researchers tested it on soils known to be sterile, such as those from the Moon and the Surtsey volcanic island near Iceland, which produced negative results as expected. Once on Mars, the LR experiment was performed after the experiment searching for organic molecules came up empty-handed. So it came as a surprise when both Viking landers, located 4,000 miles apart, collected soil that tested positive for metabolism. To rule out the possibility that the strong ultraviolet radiation on Mars might be causing the positive results, the landers collected soil buried underneath a rock, which again tested positive. The control tests also worked, with the 160 °C sterilization control yielding negative results. In addition, it seemed that whatever was doing the metabolizing was relatively fragile, since metabolic activity was significantly reduced when heating the sample to 50 °C, and completely absent when storing the soil in the dark for two months at 10 °C. Levin and Straat believe that these results provide some of the strongest evidence that the soil contained Martian life. Nonbiological candidatesEver since the LR experiments, researchers have been searching for other kinds of nonbiological chemicals that might produce identical results. In their new paper, Levin and Straat review some of these proposals. One possible candidate is formate, which is a component of formic acid found naturally on Earth. A 2003 LR-type experiment found that formate in a soil sample from the Atacama Desert in South America produced a positive result, even though the soil contained virtually no microorganisms. However, the study did not include a sterilization control, and it’s likely that the formate concentration in the Atacama Desert is much higher than that on Mars.Another potential candidate is perchlorate or one of its breakdown products. In 2009, the Phoenix mission to Mars detected perchlorates in the Martian soil. Although perchlorates could yield a positive result because they produce gas when interacting with some amino acids, they do not break down at 160 °C, and so would continue to give positive results after the sterilization control. A 2013 study proposed that cosmic rays and solar radiation can cause perchlorate to break down into hypochlorite, which would produce positive results and, unlike perchlorate, is destroyed by heating at 160 °C. For these reasons, hypochlorite is arguably the best candidate yet to explain the LR results. Nevertheless, Levin and Straat note that hypochlorite has not yet been tested at 50 °C (the temperature at which the activity of the Martian soil was significantly reduced) or after long-term storage in the dark (which produced a negative result for the Martian samples). So at this point, no nonbiological agent has satisfied all of the LR results. Biological candidates © 2016 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
You seem to have a special interest in culinary skills. How did you get initiated into this field?My passion for cooking started when I was 12 years old. I was like a puppy following my elder sister. She joined a cookery class and I followed her too. I had too much fun cooking back then. I kept up learning from every one around me. And today my paasion has taken a shape with these two books. How and when did you decide to pen down your ideas into a book? Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Around 15 years ago, I was at a stage when I was learning to make Indian desserts and pickles, and I happened to write it all down. That is when my home cook book started coming up. And rest is history. Your first book ‘Don’t diet, diet cookbook’ and now Unjunked lay a lot of stress on healthy eating. Why?I am a nutritionist and while consulting I realized that there is a need for tasty, healthy, quick to make, easy recipes. It was initially to support my client daily diets. Then slowly the collection of these recipes took form of the book. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix How is Unjunked different from the first book?Unjunked is very different from the first book. First of all it gives weight loss guidelines in a chapter called ‘Seven Day Cyclical Menu for Weight loss’.Secondly it also tells the readers about how to make healthy low calorie options when dining out. Thirdly, we have given a healthy twist to many popular junk food like pav bhaji, vada pav, sev puri, burger etc. Further the book also tells the reader how to balance all the four main meals of the day that is, breakfast, lunch, snacks and dinner. The recipes do not fall into the usually listed categories such as soups, salad, vegetables, bakes, rotis etc. If I were to ask you your favourite junk food, what would it be. Would you also tell our readers, how can it be converted into something healthy?My favorite junk food is Pav Bhaji, and that is one of the first recipe I unjunked! Reduce potato and butter content, add boiled mashed moong sprouts and more boiled peas, maintain the spices and garlic, and here you have a tasty healthy Pav Bhaji. Instead of having coke as a drink have it with cool miny buttermilk. Here you go a well balanced lunch or dinner menu. Being a nutritionist first and writer later ( or so I presume), what’s your idea of a daily healthy diet?Daily diet should be consisting of well-balanced breakfast, lunch, and dinner with a small snack in the evening with major nutrients (carbs, protein, fiber and fats). These meals should be well placed with ideally 4 hours apart. With the help of the book Unjunked I have tried to reinforce why these major nutrients are important for healthy functioning of human body and why there is a need to complete the plate.
Over 1000 students took part, representing IMS group of Institutions and other institutions. The marathon started from Kavinagar Ram Leela Ground and ended at IMS – Lal Quan Campus. The marathon was flagged off by SVS Ranga Rao, district magistrate of Ghaziabad.The management and faculties of the institute also participated along with the students. The winners of the marathon are Prasant Dubey (BTech II Year), Dauji (MCA I Year), Chandransh Singh (PGDM II Year). The management appreciated all the students who participated in the marathon.Chief guest of the occasion Kiran Yadav, SP – Traffic of Ghaziabad congratulated the students and addressed them. Trustee of IMS society Rakesh Chariaji also addressed the students during the event. He spoke about the need of peace and harmony in the society and students contribution towards it. He also asked the students to be messengers of peace and make the society a better place.
Coming from a musically rich background, Sawani Shende has made a mark of her own in the Classical music genre. She started performing at the age of 10 and has never looked back since then. She has now started an international venture with the music icon Tina Turner. Read on..How did your musical journey start?The journey of my concerts started when I was invited to perform at the Pt. Vishnu Digambar Jayanti Samaroh in Delhi when I was thirteen. On the same day, I was honoured when I performed for the then President of India, R Venkatraman at the Rashtrapati Bhavan. I have come up with numerous albums since then. I have been performing abroad in concerts right since 1998. I have toured many countries like USA, Canada, Qatar, Switzerland and Germany. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’ Tell us about your album Beyond and how is it different from many others?Beyond Love Within is a really unique album. It’s not just any other spiritual album but its an album comprising of three different religions and cultures – Hinduism, Christianism and Buddhism. This venture is all about female power. What are your contributions in the band that makes it special?I have chosen some traditional Hindu shlokas as well as some new self composed verses for this album in praise of Goddess Saraswati, Lami, Parvati, Durga etc. I have also sung a Meera Bhajan in this album. The striking feature is that I have composed all the tunes for the Hindu texts myself. My training in Hindustani classical music made it easier for me to adapt to the western harmonies keeping the gist , originality and grace of our material intact with its own individual identity. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixHow would you define your musical philosophy?I strongly believe that music is the fastest and the nearest path to reach up to god! I sing not only to please the audience and make them happy but to please god as I want to worship Him through my singing.In our country, how easy (or difficult) is it to make a mark in the music scene? What do you think the main issues are?Our country has great musical heritage which we should be proud of. The great Indian classical music tradition is acclaimed worldwide and people have started to know the importance of this music not only for entertainment but for great spiritual values like peace and meditation. The main problem I think is that the youth should understand the importance of this rich musical heritage rather than just running behind commercial music and show biz. We should strive to preserve our own culture with pride and try to take it across Indian boundaries. Tell us a bit about your music. What defines your music and songs?My music is a blend of the kirana and Gwalior gharanas of Indian classical music. Also i love to perform semi classical genres like thumri, dadra and bhajans. I always like to combine my performance with strong traditional values as well as aesthetical valuesWhat suggestions/advice would you have for newbie’s in music?There is no shortcut to success. Music should have values of dignity, peace and meditation. You should keep on adding new things to the mainstream but at the same time be grounded to your roots. Be proud of your country and its cultural values.
Kolkata: Train movement on the busy Howrah-Kharagpur section of South Eastern Railway was disrupted for four hours on Friday as irate locals blocked the tracks at a railway station after a youth was run over by a local train here, an official said. “The locals disrupted the movement of the train for almost four hours at Mecheda station due to which a few local trains and Express trains got stuck,” said Chief Public Relations Officer Sanjay Ghosh. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flights The youth, walking with his cycle, was knocked down by a local train entering the station as he tried to cross the track. As news of his death spread, hundreds of locals squatted on the tracks demanding a job for a member of the victim’s family. “As the situation is now under control, trains will start moving but they will run late. There will be changes in the scheduled time of the trains,” Ghosh said. Passengers stuck in the Howrah station suffered due to the delay and lack of announcements. “We are waiting since morning, people are exhausted still we have no information,” a passenger said.